Kidneys are quite important for human body. It is because kidneys aid in filtration of the blood so as to remove all the toxins and wastes from it which can then be excreted out of the body via urine. Although kidneys keep on working normally in bodies of most people however some people suffer from the problem of kidney failure or renal failure. It is a condition under which normal functions of the kidneys are impaired and the concerned person suffers from certain problems in their urinary system as well. It is because kidneys have a direct link with the urinary system.

The condition of renal failure is also referred to as kidney failure or renal insufficiency. Under this condition, the capacity of the kidneys, to remove or filter waste product from the blood is reduced which in turn starts creating problems in the entire body. Due to renal failure, the concerned person suffers from the problem of swelling in the body. It is due to increased fluid content in the body. At the same time, the level of acids, phosphate and potassium also rises in the body whereas there is decrease in the level of calcium content in the body. The patient also suffers from anemia during advanced stages of renal failure. Renal failure may be divided into two types- acute and chronic renal failure.

Causes of renal failure
There are multiple causes that can be held responsible for renal failure in different people. The chief reasons out of these may be as mentioned below.

  • Obstruction in the blood supply to the kidneys due to accidents, injuries or surgeries
  • Deposition of excess of toxins in the kidneys
  • Diabetes mellitus
  • High blood pressure or hypertension
  • Genetic or hereditary factors such as in case of polycystic kidney disease
  • Use of certain drugs such as ibuprofen, paracetamol and aspirin
  • Infections in the kidneys such as those caused by hantavirus

What are the major signs and symptoms of renal failure?
There are various signs and symptoms of renal failure that are noticed in the patient depending upon the underlying cause for occurrence of the same. Some of the common symptoms include nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, loss of weight, more or less frequent urge to urinate, increased or decreased urine output, change in the urine color which may be pale or dark in color, nocturnal urination, experience of pressure or difficulty in passing urine, blood coming along with urine, inflammation and burning sensation while urinating, and muscle cramps.
Damage caused to the bones, paralysis of muscles, abnormal heart rhythms plus swelling in the legs, feet, face, hands and ankles are other symptoms that are experienced by most people. Some people may also suffer from pain the back or one side of the body, difficulty in breathing, physical weakness, exhaustion and tiredness, loss of concentration and memory. There may be some other symptoms as well such as loss of appetite, difficulty in sleeping and darkening of the skin etc. Different people may experience these symptoms differently.


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