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Known as diabetes mellitus in the medical world; Diabetes refers to a condition wherein one suffers from various metabolic problems. Digested food is broken and converted into glucose that provides fuel for our bodies. Insulin, the hormone produced by the pancreas is required for our cells to take in the glucose. Diabetes is associated with high blood glucose (blood sugar) either because of inadequate production of insulin or irresponsible response of the body cells to insulin OR a combination of both. Such circumstances result in high buildup of glucose in the blood, i.e. the blood glucose. Excessive blood glucose is eliminated through urine. As such the cells do not get sufficient glucose for growth and other requirements despite its loads. It may be noted that diabetes may lead to cardiovascular diseases including hypertension, stroke, inflammatory heart problems and coronary heart ailments.

Symptoms – Patients affected with diabetes usually suffer from frequent urination. Their thirst also gets enhanced and they tend to take heavy diets. Weight loss due to no apparent reason is also its sign. Diabetic patients usually have ketones in the urine. They become easily irritable and suffer from general weakness. Their eye sight also suffers badly and the healing-process also becomes slow. Vaginal, skin or gums infections are also the signs of diabetes.

Causes – Environmental and genetic factors are usually responsible for diabetes. Insufficient production of insulin or the body-cells’ ill response to insulin OR a combination of both may also be responsible for diabetes. Family history may also be behind this disease. Damaging immune system cells also result in diabetes that may occur because of poor diets too. Geographical conditions may also sometimes lead to diabetes. It may be noted that the people in Sweden and Finland are more vulnerable to this ailment. Excessive weight and inactivity may also result in this diabetes that is more common among Asian-Americans, Hispanics, Blacks and American Indians. High blood pressure may also result in this disease.

Diagnosis – The doctor may advise blood sugar test, oral glucose tolerance test or the initial glucose challenge test etc for apt treatment.

Treatment – Patients may be advised to take Metformin (Glucophage, Glumetza, others) that give sufficient relief from the ill effects of diabetes. Those suffering from this disease are advised to take healthy diets. Whole grains, vegetables and fruits are much beneficial for the patients. Refined carbohydrates, animal products and sweets should be cut down. Sticking to meal plans suggested by the physician should be adhered to in strict manners. Simple exercises, long walks and yoga asana are much helpful to say NO to diabetes.

Managing blood sugar is all the more important for the diabetic patients. Pancreas transplant may become necessary for few patients of diabetes. Bariatric surgery may also be suggested. The requisite vaccinations at appropriate intervals of time are a must. One must stay away from cuts, redness, blisters or swelling of the feet as these may result in diabetes. Those habitual of alcohol or smoking should quit the same without any delay as they may aggravate the problem in a big way.

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